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Sedimentary rock is formed by sedmiments fuseing together over billions of years. With the help of weathering, erosion, compaction, and cementing, the layers form. Little parts of the earth are eroded, and weathered away. These little bits go down stream, into oceans, and lakes. They settle to the bottom and are called sediment. Over years and years, more "sediment" will settle on top of that sediment This will continue happening until the bottoms layers start to harden. As each layer of sediment hardens, sedimentary rock is formed.
Depending on what is found in one of the specific layers of rock, will determine how old the rock is. If a fossil is found from an extinct dinasoar, than you would know that the rock is extemely old. If you are able to see the layers of the rock, than you would know the top layer is the youngest, and the bottom most layer is the oldest.
 

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*This is an example of how sedimentary rock is formed over time. Starting with the weathering and erosion. Then, the little particles move down steam. They settle at the bottom of water, and form a new layer.*

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